The Prindex data

We collect the Prindex data through interviews with randomly selected individuals over the age of 18 from each country. Interviewing individuals allows us to present results for both men and women, and young and old people, and compare their situations. This is different to some surveys on property rights which interview the head of each household and report findings at household or property level.

In line with the efforts to build a comparable indicator for tracking progress on tenure security in the land sector, we assess the respondent’s perceived tenure security via a central question about their home, land and / or additional property:

  • In the next five years, how likely or unlikely is it that you could lose the right to use this property, or part of this property, against your will?

This means we are assessing how the respondent feels about the security of their tenure, not their legal status.

The respondents are given four response options: very likely, somewhat likely, unlikely and very unlikely. They can also say they don’t know or refuse to answer the question. We classify respondents as tenure secure if they answer unlikely or very unlikely, and tenure insecure if they answer somewhat likely or very likely. We ask the question about the respondent’s home and other land and properties separately.

To contextualise the responses on tenure security, we collect a range of additional data on individuals’ tenure situation, as well as key individual and household characteristics. Visit our questionnaires page to find out more and to download the questionnaires.

Our approach to data collection

The current Prindex data was collected in three waves (rounds) of data collection. Waves 1 & 2 were conducted in 2018 in 33 countries. Wave 3 data was collected in 2019 as part of the Gallup World Poll and covers a further 107 countries. We call this the GWP data. Our data use guide contains a list of the countries for which we have released data, along with the wave of data collection and sample size.

Wave 1 & 2 data collection

For the Wave 1 & 2 data collection, enumerators from two data research companies (Gallup and CrossTab) conducted face-to-face or telephone interviews in each country. The total sample was over 53,000 respondents across the 33 countries.

In all countries except the United Kingdom, a multistage stratified cluster sampling approach was used to select respondents using the latest available census data. In the United Kingdom, surveys were conducted over the telephone and respondents were selected from national landline and mobile phone lists. As we aim to interview a representative sample of the adult population, not the head of household or the most knowledgeable person about the dwelling or land, we used a randomisation process to select which household adult was interviewed. This process also ensured an equal-as-possible probability that a female respondent was interviewed. You can find more information on the sampling strategy page.

GWP data collection

In 2019, we included Prindex’s questionnaire module on perceptions of tenure security in the Gallup World Poll. This allowed us to efficiently collect data in 107 countries, expanding the Prindex dataset to 140 countries. It also gives us access to the wide range of data in the World Poll, allowing us to analyse other factors which are connected to perceived tenure security.

The Gallup World Poll surveys were conducted either face-to-face or over the telephone and respondents were selected using very similar methods to the Wave 1 & 2 data collection.

A village in Costa Rica
A village in Costa Rica


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