Tunisia is a North African country on the Mediterranean coast between Algeria and Libya. The south of the country is semi-arid as it emerges from the Sahara. Moving north, the climate becomes Mediterranean and the terrain mountainous. The vast majority of the population live in the northern part of the country in urban areas. Agriculture is a small part of the economy – under 10% of GDP and employing less than 15% of the work force in 2017. It is a lower middle-income country which is facing challenges of high young unemployment and lower economic growth.
The land tenure system is dominated by two forms of regulations: Islamic Law; and a registration system formalized by the French colonial authority. These result in four main tenure types: private State land, e.g., confiscated or vacant property; public State land, which includes roads, shores and woodlands; Private freehold (milk) land; and collective land that is held in communal ownership for grazing.
In common with other countries in the region, gender equality is a challenge in Tunisia. The government has introduced some progressive changes in law to improve gender equality, such as couples having the right to opt for the equal division of all property acquired during a marriage. However, customary rules often exclude women from inheritance, particularly in rural areas.