Morocco is a northern African country with a climate ranging from forests in the mountainous areas to deserts in the southeast. 62% of the 36.2 million inhabitants (2018) live in urban areas. It is a lower middle-income country with a GDP per capita of nearly US$7,500 in 2017. Despite improvements, rural poverty remains a problem. Agricultural productivity is a key issue; 38% of the population work in agriculture, forestry and fishing but it only contributed 12% to GDP (2017).
The legal environment for land in Morocco is diverse and fragmented, with both formal and customary arrangements. The laws recognise four main tenure types: ownership, which can be either private freehold (melk) land or endowed (habous) land; usufruct rights to collective land, where the state is trustee of the land and tribal members have usage rights; use rights to guich land, which was given to members of the military by the monarchy; and State land, such as parks, shores and forests. The majority of land owners in Morocco are male and, while law reforms have led to improvements in women’s rights — for example, to marital property and inheritance — preference of men’s rights over women’s remains.