Mexico is located in the southern part of North America, an upper middle-income country with GDP per capita of nearly US$18,300 in 2017. 80% of Mexico’s population lives in urban areas, the result of a period of rapid urbanization caused by population growth and rural-to-urban migration. The Government of Mexico has struggled to plan and build the infrastructure the rising urban population needs, leading to the growth of informal settlements on the periphery of urban centres.
Following the 1917 revolution, Mexico started significant land reform, redistributing land from large farms to groups of households known as ejidos. Rights to commonly held land were also granted to Indigenous groups which they organized into forms of collective ownership known as comunidades. The land regime changed in 1992 to allow privatization and market transfers of ejidal land rights. There are now four broad categories of landholding: private property which is owned by a private individual or corporate body; Federal property which is owned by the national government and includes land that have public benefits such as forests and roads; Ejidal or comunidad land; and Colonias (informal settlements) where residents often hold rights of possession.
Statutory land rights are mostly equal between men and women in Mexico; in practice, land rights tend to favour men. Traditional customs and practices discriminate against women; for example, there is a preference for only sons to inherit land.