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Tenure Insecurity

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Colombia

Located in the northwest of South America, Columbia borders Panama, Venezuela, Brazil, Peru and Ecuador, and has coastlines on both the Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean. The population is just under 50 million (2018), and the majority of Colombians live in the north and west of the country. 81% of the population live in urban areas, and this is increasing as the rural population is declining by 0.9% per year. An upper middle-income country, GDP per capita was US$14,400 in 2017. The services sector makes up the majority of the economy, 58% of GDP in 2017; Colombia is very reliant on exports of energy, minerals and agricultural products.

Colombia’s recent history brings several key land issues: one is the unequal holding of agricultural land, a consequence of Colombia’s colonial and post-colonial past. More than half of Colombia’s best rural land is owned by less than 1% of the population, leaving the remaining rural inhabitants with very small parcels. Secondly, conflict has caused substantial internal displacement which has driven rapid urbanization. This has resulted in large informal settlements around many cities. Past attempts at land reform have been ineffective. However, the peace process may be changing this.

Although, legislation protects women’s rights to land, these are often breached. Women are the most susceptible to forced displacement and female-headed households are more likely to live in informal settlements.

Prindex’s results show that 24% of respondents felt insecure about their tenure rights in 2018 – an equivalent of 8.5 million people aged 18 or over – equal to the average for the first 33 countries. 65% of the sample interviewed felt secure about their property rights and the remaining 11% refused or did not know how to answer the question.

The tables and diagrams below show key Prindex results for Colombia or you can download an infographic.

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Analysing Tenure Insecurity by category

Location
Tenure type
Documentation
Properties
Gender
Age
Employment type
Income adequacy

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