Situated in the centre of South America, Bolivia is a landlocked country that shares borders with Peru, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina and Chile. A resource-rich country, with GDP growth in excess of 5% per year over the last decade, it remains one of the least developed and poorest countries in South America. The majority of Bolivians (69%) live in urban areas. Services is the largest sector of the economy (49% of GDP in 2017), followed by industry (26% of GDP in 2017) and agriculture (12% of GDP in 2017). Despite its relatively small contribution to GDP, 27% of the work force in Bolivia is employed in agriculture.
Historically, distribution of land in Bolivia has been highly skewed towards the wealthy. This has disproportionately affected indigenous people. Previous land reform attempts have had little impact due to lack of resources, corruption, and limited political will. More recently, this has been changing, with a government land reform program starting in 2006 and provisions made in the 2009 Constitution. However, there are ongoing challenges.
The majority of land is owned and controlled by men, and women rarely inherit land. Indigenous women are particularly vulnerable as they can often be part of unregistered relationships and lack identity documents.